Fiber optic cables deliver gigabit speeds over long distances and provide services such as cable and internet to homes and businesses. Unlike copper wire cables, fiber optic cables utilize light to transmit data at high speeds. These cables avoid crosstalk exceptionally, unlike their wire counterparts, and are used when transmission security is of the upmost importance.
Fiber optic cables consist of the core, which is the part of the cable that transmits light. It is fabricated from a very thin length of glass “fibers.” The cladding encases the core and reflects light back into the core. Because light travels in a straight line, the cladding allows transmission of light even when the cable bends. This phenomenon is referred to as total internal reflection. Outside of the cladding, the buffer coating provides protection to the core from damages. These elements work as the basis of a fiber optic cable and forms the foundation of a fiber optic system.
For a fiber optic cable to carry out necessary functions and transmit light, it must be paired with the necessary equipment. Firstly, electrical signals are created by a device such as a telephone. The electrical signals convey input data which is then turned into light with the use of a light source such as LED or laser light. They are then given to a transmitter which sends the data through the fiber optic cable. Because of total internal reflection, the core carries the light to a photo detector. This apparatus converts the light signals back to electrical signals so that they may be read and converted to usable information.
Fiber optic cables are most commonly utilized in long-distance operations and are known for their high speeds and broad bandwidth in such applications; however, they are also used in home and businesses. These cables are ideal for analog transmissions, such as telephone wiring, or data cabling. With the proper elements, fiber optics can be utilized in medical procedures, networking purposes, telecommunications settings, and in any application where high speeds and high capacities are necessary.